Endoscopy: Endoscopy Cost, Types & More
Endoscopy is a non-surgical procedure which involves insertion of a long, thin, flexible tube attached with a light and camera for observation of internal organs and tissues to detect any abnormalities in the body. It is a quick and easy procedure that provides detailed images and is proven to be useful in different areas of medicine. Your doctor may perform an endoscopy for investigation of different parts of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in the body which include: the upper gastrointestinal tract, Small intestine, and lower gastrointestinal tract, etc.
Types of endoscopy
Endoscopy broadly classified into either diagnostic or therapeutic
- Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: The scope is inserted through the mouth for examination of the oesophagus and upper intestinal tract.
- Enteroscopy: The scope is inserted through the mouth or anus to examine the small intestine.
- Colonoscopy: The scope is inserted through the anus to examine the colon.
- Sigmoidoscopy: The scope is inserted into the anus to examine the rectum and lower part of the large intestine (sigmoid colon).
- Esophageal manometry: It is a test to assess the pressures and pattern of muscle contractions of the esophageal body and sphincters.
- 24 hour Esophageal pH metry: It measures the amount and severity of acid reflux in the esophagus over 24 hrs.
Therapeutic and newer endoscopic technologies
- Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): An ultrasound probe attached to tip of an endoscope to visualize organs adjacent to intestinal lumen and through which, tissue samples also can be obtained.
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): It includes a combination of upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy with X-rays for diagnosis and treatment of bile and pancreatic ductal diseases such as stones, strictures, cancers, etc.
- Capsule endoscopy: It involves swallowing of a capsule embedded with a tiny camera which passes through your gastrointestinal tracts and creates images without causing discomfort.
- Spy-Cholangioscopy: It involves passing a tiny camera into the bile duct or pancreatic duct through a working channel of an endoscope to identify and treat stones, cancers, strictures, etc.
- POEM (Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy): It is an endoscopic equivalent of surgical myotomy (division of lower oesophageal sphincter) to treat a rare clinical condition called Achalasia Cardia.
- EMR (Endoscopic submucosal resection)/ ESD (Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection): It is a newer technique to remove superficial cancers involving upper or lower gastrointestinal tract without surgical removal of an organ.
- Narrow band imaging (NBI): It helps in better differentiation of inner lining of the digestive tract (mucosa) and surrounding blood vessels.
- Chromoendoscopy: It involves usage of a special dye on the intestine lining during endoscopy for better visualisation of intestinal lining abnormalities
Preparation for Endoscopy
Before the procedure
- Your doctor will take a thorough medical history including information about your present medications and any previous procedures followed by a physical examination.
- Prior to most endoscopic procedures, patients are advised to fast for about 8 hours, although this may vary with different types of endoscopies.
- Your doctor may prescribe laxatives the night before your procedure to clear out the gastrointestinal tract and anus.
During the procedure
- Majority of endoscopies are outpatient procedures. You may be consciously sedated with a local anaesthetic or general anaesthesia may be administered depending on the type of endoscopy.
- For endoscopic procedures which require insertion of the tube through the mouth, a mouth guard is used for protection of the teeth and lips.
- Your doctor inserts the endoscopic tube through openings such as the mouth and the anus or through small incisions depending on the body part being examined.
- Once images are created, the endoscope is removed. The procedure may be completed in few minutes to few hours depending on the type of procedure.
After the procedure
Recovery time may vary with the type of endoscopy performed. Once your procedure is completed, you will be required to remain in the hospital for about 1-2 hours until the sedative effect is worn off. Patients are advised to avoid working or driving on the day of the procedure due to the sedative effects. You may feel mild discomfort following some endoscopic procedures. Following gastrointestinal endoscopies, you may experience soreness in your throat and bloating, however, these symptoms are normal and generally subside within 24 hours.
Endoscopy Cost in Chennai
The cost of endoscopy varies with the specific condition of the person, the type of endoscopy indicated, type of anaesthesia, the location and healthcare practitioners. Generally, if the endoscopic procedure involves surgery or biopsy, the cost goes up. Based on these factors diagnostic endoscopic procedures may range from Rs 3000 to Rs 12,000.
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Frequently asked questions
How long does it take to recover from an endoscopy?
Recovery from endoscopy generally depends on the type of endoscopy that you have undergone. For upper gastrointestinal endoscopies, you may recover within 2-3 hours of the procedure.
What do I need to bring on the day of my procedure?
You need not carry any specific things for the procedure; if anything is required hospital team would inform you prior to the procedure. You may carry a small water bottle and napkin. As you will be advised not to drive for up to 24 hours after the procedure due to the sedative effect, you may arrange a ride for yourself to go back home.
What should you avoid before an endoscopy?
Your doctor may advise you to avoid eating solid foods for up to 8 hours before your endoscopy procedure.
Do they put you to sleep for an endoscopy?
Generally, endoscopic procedures are carried out under conscious sedation with local anaesthesia and medications. However, some endoscopic procedures may be performed under general anaesthesia which puts you to sleep.
Dr Mahadevan B
HOD & Senior Consultant – Department of Gastroenterology & Endosonography