Immunology is a branch of biology that
covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. An allergist or
immunologist is a physician specially trained to diagnose, treat and manage
allergies, asthma and immunologic disorders including primary immunodeficiency
Asthma can usually be managed with rescue
inhalers to treat symptoms and controller inhalers that prevent symptoms
(steroids). Severe cases may require longer-acting inhalers that keep the
airways open, as well as inhalant steroids.
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease
that affects the lungs and digestive system. The body produces thick and sticky
mucus that can clog the lungs and obstruct the pancreas. Cystic fibrosis (CF)
can be life-threatening, and people with the condition tend to have a
shorter-than-normal life span.
These drugs can help relieve coughing, shortness of breath and breathing
problems by relaxing constricted airways.
- Inhaled steroids.
Corticosteroid drugs inhaled as aerosol sprays reduce inflammation and may help
relieve shortness of breath.
- Interstitial Lung
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an
umbrella term for a large group of disorders that cause scarring of the lungs.
The scarring causes stiffness in the lungs which makes it difficult to breathe.
Interventional pulmonology is a
relatively new field in pulmonary medicine. Interventional pulmonology uses
endoscopy and other tools to diagnose and treat conditions in the lungs and
chest. These procedures may be offered by pulmonologists (lung specialists) who
have undergone extra training.
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term
breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of
breath and cough with sputum production.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common
disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of nocturnal breathing cessation
due to upper airway collapse. OSA causes severe symptoms, such as excessive
daytime somnolence, and is associated with a significant cardiovascular
morbidity and mortality.