Female Infertility

Female Infertility


Infertility is the inability to get pregnant even after a year of trying. If the woman is over 35 years of age, the duration is reduced from a year to 6 months.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Irregular periods
  • Very long or very short interval between periods

Causes and Risk Factors

  • Malformed uterus
  • Injury to fallopian tubes
  • Polyps and fibroids in the uterus
  • Problems with the cervical canal
  • Excess prolactin production by pituitary gland
  • Poly cystic ovarian syndrome – most common cause of infertility
  • Premature ovarian failure – ovaries stop producing eggs in women below 40 years
  • Hypothalamus not producing follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in the right quantities
  • Endometriosis
  • Women over 30 years who produce fewer eggs
  • Smoking damages the cervix and fallopian tubes. It is also responsible for ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
  • Being obese or underweight both cause infertility
  • Having sexually transmitted diseases


  • Checking for the hormones produced before and after ovulation to make sure the ovulation process is happening
  • A hysterosalpingography to check for any blockage in the fallopian tubes
  • Biopsy of the endometrium
  • Testing the quality of eggs produced
  • A sonohysterogram which is more advanced than an ultrasound and helps in checking the uterus
  • Laparoscopy may be done to check the inside of the uterus for any abnormalities


The treatment depends on the problem.

  • Fertility Medication – They work like natural hormones and help in starting ovulation. There are many medications available for this. However, fertility medicines have some risks which have to be discussed before starting.
  • Laparoscopy/Hysteroscopy - Once the abnormality is diagnosed, surgery can be carried out to fix it. This can range from correcting the shape of the uterus to removing polyps and fibroids.
  • Tubal surgeries to correct blocked fallopian tubes


  • Maintaining healthy weight. Exercise in moderation as high intensity exercises have been shown to decrease eggs production.
  • Quitting smoking. Smoking will also affect foetal development in pregnant women.
  • Stopping alcohol.
  • Reduction in caffeine intake.
  • Adopting ways to combat stress.
  • Undergoing infertility treatment is stressful. Do not hesitate to reach out for help. Talking to friends and family might help.Professional help is also always available to guide patients through what can be very difficult times.

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