Menstrual Cramps

Menstrual Cramps


This refers to the lower abdominal pain felt during periods. The pain varies from mild to severe and sometimes gets better with passing years. For many women, the pain stops after delivering the first baby.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Lower abdominal pain of varying intensity
  • Pain could also be felt in the thighs, hips and lower back
  • Pain could be accompanied by vomiting/diarrhoea

Causes and Risk Factors

  • Endometriosis – growth of endometrium outside the uterus
  • Adenomyosis – endometrium growing onto adjacent muscle
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease – a bacterial infection of uterus
  • Cervical stenosis – narrowing of cervix
  • Fibroids in uterus
  • Smoking
  • Genetic predisposition towards heavy periods


Though they are painful and can interfere with daily activities, they do not cause any complications.


  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Laparoscopy


Treatment is first started with medication – painkillers and birth control tablets.

If there is a condition causing cramps like fibroids, endometriosis, etc., the appropriate surgical procedure to treat that condition will be performed.


  • Exercising regularly
  • Vitamin tablets
  • Practicing techniques to reduce stress

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