Bronchiectasis is the condition in which the walls of the bronchial tubes in the lungs are permanently damaged and are widened. Bacteria and phlegm pool in these widened bronchial tubes, leading to frequent infections and blockages of the airways. Bronchiectasis can be caused by cystic fibrosis (genetic condition) or lung infections like tuberculosis, allergies, HIV, auto-immune conditions, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Bronchiectasis requires a multi-disciplinary approach to manage it medically. If despite medical management, the bronchiectasis is severe and confined to a specific lobe, surgical removal of that portion of the lung is performed.