Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease include a wide spectrum of structural malformations of the heart at birth. These defects can involve the walls of the heart or the valves between the chambers of the heart and adjacent arteries and veins. Severe congenital heart defects are detected during pregnancy or soon after birth. Signs of congenital heart disease in infants include rapid breathing, poor weight gain, fatigue, and sometimes cyanosis (blue skin and lips).

Acynaotic Heart Defects

Acynaotic heart defects affect the walls between atrial or ventricular chambers, heart valves or major blood vessels. They are characterised by the mixing of pink blood with the blue blood. This leads to increased blood flow and higher blood pressure in the pulmonary artery. These patients do not turn blue till the disease is very advanced.

ASD & VSD (Hole in the heart)

Atrial and Ventricular Septal Defects are congenital conditions in which a child is born with a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the two upper or lower chambers of the heart. The hole in the septum causes oxygenated blood to mix with de-oxygenated blood, altering the blood flow dynamics in the heart, lungs and the body. The defect can vary in size and sometimes minor defects can close on their own. If the defect is large and causes significant altered blood flow, it needs closure by interventional procedures (pin hole) or by surgery.

Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA)

Abnormal persistence of ductus arteriosis (normally closes within a week of birth)leading to flow of pink blood from the aorta (artery of the body) to the pulmonary (lung) artery. This can lead to increased flow of blood to the lungs, high lung artery pressure, rapid breathing, failure to thrive and even heart failure. This is treated by interventional procedures (pin hole) or by surgery.

Coarctation

Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital heart condition in which the aorta (artery to the body) is severely narrowed. This leads to high blood pressure in the upper part of the body and lower blood pressure in the lower half of the body. This is corrected by surgery in children or by interventional procedures (balloon dilatation and stenting) in the adults.

Cyanotic Heart Defects ( Blue baby)

Cyanotic heart defects are a category of congenital heart defects in which the blue blood (deoxygenated) mixes with the pink blood (oxygenated) going to the body. This leads to low blood oxygen levels in the body of the infant, causing the baby to develop a bluish appearance.

Tetralogy of Fallot (Blue baby)

Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of four major structural malformations of the heart. Depending on the amount of blood flow to the lungs, the baby can have very low oxygen levels in the body requiring urgent surgery or may be pink if the pulmonary blood flow is adequate. The correction is by surgery which involves opening up the pathway of blood to the lungs and closure of a large hole in the heart (VSD).

Truncus Arteriosus

Truncus Arteriosis is a congenital cardiac defect in which a single blood vessel (truncus) exits from the heart and divides into pulmonary (lung) artery and aorta (body artery). Correction of this defect is by surgery to separate the pulmonary artery along with the aorta and closure of the hole in the heart (VSD).

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC)

Normally the pulmonary veins bring back the oxygenated (pink) blood back to the left atrial chamber of the heart. TAPVC is a congenital heart condition in which the pulmonary vein connects wrongly to the right atrial chamber of the heart. The correction involves surgery to reroute the pulmonary veins to the left atrial chamber and closure of the hole in the heart (ASD).

Pulmonary Atresia

Pulmonary atresia is a congenital heart condition in which the pathway and valves allowing blood to flow from the right ventricle chamber of the heart to the lungs is not formed. Blood flow to the lungs is through abnormal connections flowing from the aorta to the pulmonary artery. Repair is by surgical reconstruction of the pathway between right ventricular chamber of the heart and the lungs (using a conduit/homograft) and closure of the hole in the heart (VSD).

Ebstein's anomaly

Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital condition in which the tricuspid valve is malformed. This leads to leakage of blood from the right ventricular chamber back to the right atrial chamber of the heart. The heart enlarges and the patient can even end up in a heart failure. The surgical repair of this malformation is performed using latest techniques (cone repair of the tricuspid valve).

Univentricular heart disease

Tricuspid atresia is one of the commonest univentricular heart disease in our country. In this condition the tricuspid valve (connecting the right atrial and right ventricular chambers) is not formed. The right ventricle is too small to support the pulmonary (lung) circulation. Only the left ventricle (single ventricle) is good enough to support blood circulation. These children are managed by Fontan palliation which is achieved by staged surgery (2-3 surgeries).

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