Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)


Inflammatory bowel disease is a condition when there is chronic inflammation in the GI tract. The good bacteria in the gut gets attacked by the immune system of the body causing injury. The two types of IBD are - Ulcerative Colitis that affects the colon or large intestine and Crohn’s disease that impacts the inner layers of the gastrointestinal tract.

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms of Inflammatory bowel disease vary from mild to severe based on the intensity of the condition and range from diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, blood in stools, sudden weight loss to unexplained fatigue.

Causes and risk factors

Though the exact cause for IBD is not known, hereditary factors, inflammatory reactions in the intestinal tract due to attacks on the body’s immune system by antigens, virus or bacteria, dietary habits and stress are all suspected to trigger IBD. Certain non-steroidal medications which are anti-inflammatory may worsen the condition of IBD.


Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s disease each have complications of their own based on the severity of the condition. Major complications that are associated with IBD are malnutrition, bowel rupture, intestinal bleeding from the ulcers, development of blood clots in the arteries or veins and inflammation of the joints, eyes and the skin.


Irritable Bowel Disease is diagnosed through various tests and procedures like stool tests, CB (Complete Blood Count), Barium X-rays, other blood tests like CRP (C-Reactive Protein), radiological tests, Colonoscopy where a long flexible tube (colonoscope) is used to examine the colon and upper endoscopy. Imaging procedures such as MRI, CT scan and X-ray are also methods of diagnosis in some cases.


Surgery in the case of Ulcerative Colitis involves the removal of the entire colon and rectum. For Crohn’s disease, surgery involves removal of the damaged part of the digestive tract and reconnecting it to the healthier parts. Along with surgery, constant medication is needed for containing Crohn’s disease.


Irritable Bowel Disorder can be prevented by following a stress-free lifestyle supplemented with a nutritious diet that involves controlled intake of dairy products, small meals, sufficient hydration and exercising regularly.

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