Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer


Esophageal cancer affects the “food pipe” which connects the mouth and the stomach. It typically starts in the lining of the esophagus and then penetrates the walls. The cancer grows and creates an obstruction in the esophagus resulting in complications, practical difficulty with swallowing etc. The most common types of Esophageal cancer are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

Signs and symptoms

Early on, there may be no clear symptoms. As the cancer advances, it may cause unexplained weight loss, fatigue, pain while swallowing, chest pain, coughing, indigestion and heartburn.

Causes and risk factors

The cause of Esophageal cancer is not clear. However, smoking, heavy alcohol abuse and a history of GERD are linked to a higher risk of Esophageal cancer. Elderly, obese men are a particularly high-risk demographic.


Esophageal cancer could grow and cause an obstruction. It could also cause internal bleeding and severe pain.


Esophageal cancer is confirmed with a series of imaging and diagnostic tests, including endoscopy and biopsy.

Treatment and Surgical Interventions

The treatment plan will be formulated for each patient depending on the extent of the cancer, the type of cell that has caused the cancer, and the baseline health of the patient. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy could benefit the patient. Additional surgical intervention may or may not be required. Targeted-drug therapy and immunotherapy have also shown results in the treatment of Esophageal cancer. Endoscopy guided Esophageal stent placement (SEMS) helps to relieve difficulty in swallowing.


To reduce your risk of Esophageal cancer, quit drinking and smoking, eat healthier and cleaner and maintain a good Body Mass Index (BMI).


Endoscopy Guidelines

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