Endoscopic Procedures

The Department of Gastroenterology at GGHC provides specialised diagnostic and treatment options for a wide variety of gastroenterological conditions. These procedures could be diagnostic or therapeutic, depending on the disease. Our endoscopy suites are equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for fast and accurate diagnosis, clinical research and good patient care.



Gastroscopy is a procedure performed using an endoscope to examine the upper GI tract (the esophagus, stomach and duodenum), especially its inner lining.


Colonoscopy is a procedure performed to detect changes or abnormalities in the rectum, colon and large intestine using an endoscope.


Sigmoidoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy is a procedure wherein an endoscope is used to visualise the sigmoid colon and check for any ulcers, polyps or cancerous growths.


Duodenoscopy is a procedure performed to check the duodenum for any irregularities, growths or ulcers in the duodenum, bile duct and upper small intestine, using an endoscope.

Endoscopic Ultrasound

An endoscopic ultrasound is a minimally invasive procedure to assess the extent of gastrointestinal damage. The specialised endoscope used in this process emits high-frequency sounds which are used to provide a more accurate picture of the lining and walls of the digestive tract and nearby structures.


The Spyglass is a specialised endoscopy tool for bile duct and pancreatic duct evaluation. It helps improve diagnostic accuracy in patients with indeterminate pancreatobiliary strictures (PBS) or mass and also in managing difficult bile duct stones and migrated stents.



Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure used to treat diseases of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas. This procedure is used to remove bile duct and pancreatic stones, treating pancreatic/biliary strictures due to benign or malignant diseases.

Endoscopic Ultrasound

Endoscopic Ultrasounds were developed for diagnostic use, but found a range of therapeutic uses as well – drainage of pancreatic fluid, treatment of cystic lesions, localised therapy for pancreatic tumours and treatment of gastric varices.

POEM (Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy)

POEM is a therapeutic endoscopic procedure, used to treat patients with achalasia and Esophageal spasms that do not respond to drug therapies.

ESD/ EMR (Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection/ Endoscopic Mucosal Resection) for early GI malignancy

ESD and EMR are endoscopic procedures performed to remove submucosal tumours or early-stage cancerous tissue from the digestive tract.

Submucosal Endoscopic Tunnel Resection (STER)

STER is an endoscopic technique used to treat Esophageal submucosal tumours. It is an improvement in the ESD technique.

Stricture dilatation

Stricture dilation (re-widening of constrictions) in the esophagus, intestine or bowel can be performed with balloons, dilators or self-expanding metal stent (SEMS).

Treatment for GI bleed

GI bleeding can sometimes be corrected during an endoscopy, using medical injections, using a band or clip to close the opening or using a heat probe, laser or electric current to cauterize the area.

Foreign Body removal

Endoscopic foreign body removal is a minimally invasive procedure used to remove objects that have accidentally been ingested and are stuck in the patient’s GI tract.

PEG tube placement

Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) is a procedure used to place a flexible feeding tube in the patient’s stomach. Patients who have difficulty swallowing or intake of oral nutrition benefit greatly from this procedure.

Endoscopic treatment for GERD

Endoscopic treatments for GERD includes radiofrequency ablations and endoscopic fundoplication devices.


Endoscopy Guidelines

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