What are the diseases and conditions treated by Department of Endocrinology?

What is diabetes?

When your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high consistently it is known as diabetes. While, the glucose in your blood is the main source of energy that comes from the food you eat. A hormone made by the pancreas, insulin, helps glucose from food to be used for energy. An issue with insulin can also cause diabetes

What are the different types of diabetes?

    • Type 1: It is a kind of disease that can strike at any age, but is seen most frequently in children and adolescents. In type 1 diabetes, your body produces little or no insulin, which means you need external help of insulin on a daily basis to maintain blood glucose levels under control.
    • Type 2: A more common type of diabetes seen these days in adults. It makes up around 90% of all diabetes cases across the world. In this type of diabetes, your body produces insulin, but does not make good use of it. This type of diabetes treatment lies in maintaining a healthy lifestyle, increased physical activity and a healthy diet. However, over time most people with this disease need oral drugs and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control.
    • Gestational diabetes (GDM): In this type of diabetes, the mother and child have high blood glucose during pregnancy and is associated with pregnancy complications. GDM usually disappears after pregnancy, however, both mother and her child are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

How is type II diabetes diagnosed?

    • A1c: in this you take an average of your blood glucose over the past few months.
    • Fasting plasma glucose: Also known as a fasting blood sugar test, in this your blood sugar is measured on an empty stomach. The patient cannot eat or drink anything except water for 8 hours before the test.
    • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): This test measured your blood glucose before and two hours after you eat or drink something sweet to see how your body handles the sugar.

What are the symptoms of type II diabetes?

The symptoms of type II diabetes are:

  • Being very thirsty
  • Peeing a lot
  • Blurry vision
  • Being cranky
  • Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet
  • Fatigue/feeling worn out
  • Wounds that don’t heal
  • Recurring yeast infections
  • Hunger
  • Sudden weight loss or gain
  • Getting more infections
  • Dark rashes around your neck or armpits that may indicate insulin resistance

How is type II diabetes treated?

Management of type 2 diabetes includes:

  • Weight loss
  • Healthy eating
  • Regular exercise
  • Diabetes medication or insulin therapy
  • Blood sugar monitoring

What is Juvenile Diabetes?

Juvenile diabetes is now known as Type 1 diabetes is an insulin-dependent diabetes. It is a chronic condition in which your body makes little or no insulin, a hormone needed to convert sugar into energy.

How is Juvenile Diabetes diagnosed?

    • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test
    • Random blood sugar test
    • Fasting blood sugar test

What are the symptoms of Juvenile diabetes?

The symptoms of Juvenile diabetes are:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Increased hunger (especially after eating)
  • Dry mouth
  • Upset stomach and vomiting
  • Frequent urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Heavy, labored breathing
  • Recurring infections of your skin, urinary tract, or vagina
  • Crankiness or mood swings
  • Bedwetting in a child who’s been dry at night

How is Juvenile diabetes treated?

Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes:

  • Taking insulin.
  • Carbohydrate, fat and protein counting.
  • Frequent blood sugar monitoring.
  • Eating healthy foods.
  • Exercising regularly

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